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13.01.2021

Climate characteristic of 2020

2020 was abnormally warm. The average annual air temperature was +9.1°C, which is 2.4°C higher than normal.
Deviation of the average annual air temperature from the climatic norm (+6.7°С) in Belarus

This year has ranked first in a ranked series of observations (warmest to coldest) since 1881. Before that, the warmest year was 2019 with an average air temperature of + 8.8°С. Throughout the year, except for April, May and July, above zero air temperature anomalies were observed.
Deviation of average monthly air temperature from the climatic norm on average in Belarus for 2020

Average air temperature for the winter season 2019-2020 was +1.5°C, which is 5.5°C higher than the climatic norm. Such a warm winter on the territory of Belarus has never been noted in the entire history of meteorological observations. The previous record belongs to the winter season 1989-1990 with an average air temperature of -0.1°C.
All three months of winter 2019-2020 were very warm with a positive average monthly air temperature. The average December temperature was +1.9°C, which is 5.2°C higher than the climatic norm. In a ranked range from warmest to coldest since 1945, December 2019 took 2nd place. In January, the average air temperature was +1.1°C, which is 5.5°C higher than the climatic norm. Such a warm January is celebrated for the first time in the history of meteorological observations (since 1881).
The average air temperature in February was +1.6°C, which is 5.9°C higher than the ten-day climatic norm. February with such a high average monthly air temperature is celebrated for the second time since 1945.
The maximum air temperature for the winter season was recorded at Drogichin station on December 18 (+12.8°С), the minimum was at Yezerishche station on February 8 (-11.1°С).
The average air temperature in the spring of 2020 averaged +7.1°C in the country, which is 0.2°C higher than the climatic norm. 
There was no stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0°С towards an increase (the beginning of spring in climatology) in Belarus this year, since climatic winter did not come (the average daily air temperature did not pass through 0°С towards a decrease in the winter months). 
March was warm. The average air temperature for the month was +3.6°С, which is 3.4°С higher than the climatic norm. So warm in March in the country happens about once every 10-15 years. In April, the national average air temperature was +6.8°C, which is 0.5°C below the climatic norm. 
A stable transition of the average daily air temperature over 5°C towards an increase (the beginning of the growing season) took place over most of the country at the end of March - the first decade of April in terms close to usual and only in the extreme northeast of the country will be in the third decade of April.
May was cold. The average temperature was +11.0°С, which is 2.4°С below the climatic norm. The last time such a cold May in Belarus was noted in 1999.
A stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 8°C towards an increase (the end of the heating period) took place in the third decade of April to early May and only in the extreme south and South-West of the country in the first decade of April.
The maximum value of the air temperature for the season (+28.9°C) was noted in Zhitkovichi on May 11. The minimum value of the air temperature was recorded on March 24 at the Berezinsky Zapovednik station (-10.9°С). 
The country average air temperature for the summer season of 2020 was 
+18.8°С, which is 1.4°С higher than the climatic norm. The past season was ranked 11 in a ranked series of observations from warmest to coldest season since 1881. 
A stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 14°C towards an increase (the beginning of climatic summer) throughout the country took place on June 4-6. 
During this summer, from 26 to 67 hot days (with a temperature of +25°C and above) were noted with a norm of 22-48 days.
The temperature regime of the season was not uniform.
The average air temperature in Belarus in June was +19.6°C, which is 3.2°C higher than the climatic norm. The first month of summer was ranked 4th in a ranked series of observations from warmest to coldest since 1945.
In July, the average air temperature in Belarus was +18.3°C, which is 0.1°C below the climatic norm. Since 1881, this and a lower air temperature in July on average throughout the country occurs approximately once every 2 years.
In August, the national average air temperature was +18.6°C, which is 1.3°C higher than the climatic norm. August of this year was ranked 9th in the ranked series of observations from warmest to coldest month since 1945.
The maximum air temperature of the summer season was recorded in Zhlobin on June 11 (+34.4°С), the minimum was on August 14 in Bobruisk (+3.1°С).
The average air temperature in the fall season of 2020 was +9.7°С, which is 3.1°С higher than the climatic norm. Such a warm autumn on the territory of Belarus is celebrated for the first time in the entire history of observations.
The average September temperature was +14.8°С, which is 2.7°С higher than the norm. September 2020 became the second in the ranked row from warmest to coldest September since 1945 (September 2018 was the warmest).
The end of the climatic summer (the transition of the average daily air temperature through 14°C towards a decrease) took place on September 17-18, mainly in the northern half of the country, on September 28 in some areas in the west of the republic, on October 7-11 in the southern half of Belarus.
The average air temperature in Belarus in October was +10.5°C (3.8°C above the norm). October 2020 is the warmest since 1945. Prior to that, the warmest was October 1967 with an average air temperature of + 9.7°C.
The beginning of the heating period (a stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 8°C towards a decrease) took place mainly in the Northern half of the country on October 15-17 (this usually occurs in the first decade of October); from October 28 to November 8 - in the Southern half of Belarus (usually in the second decade of October).
The average air temperature in Belarus in November was +3.8°C (2.9°C higher than the climatic norm). So warm in November on the territory of the country, since 1945, it happens about once every 9 years, and since 1981 about once every 5-6 years.
A stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 5°C towards a decrease (the end of the growing season) in most of the country took place on November 9-10, 2-3 weeks later than usual, and in the South-West of the country - on November 20.
The maximum air temperature for the autumn season was recorded at Bragin station on September 2 (+32.8°С), the minimum was at Polesskaya station on November 11 (-5.0°С).
The air temperature in December 2020 averaged -0.8°С in the republic, which is 2.5°С higher than the climatic norm. December with the same and higher average monthly air temperature, since 1945, is observed on average once every 5 years, and over the past 20 years once every 2-3 years.
A stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0°С towards a decrease in most of the country's territory took place in the last days of November to the first decade of December, 2-3 weeks later than usual, and in the extreme Southwest on the last day of the month, the transition did not take place.
In 2020, the national average was 593.7 mm of precipitation, or 92% of the norm (norm is 646 mm).

Deviation of annual precipitation from climatic norm (646 mm) on the territory of Belarus

In 4 out of 12 months of the year, the amount of precipitation exceeded the norm. The largest amount of precipitation was noted in June -104.2 mm or 129% of the climatic norm for the month. The driest month was April, during which an average of 13.1 mm of precipitation fell in Belarus, which amounted to 34% of the climatic norm. In a ranked series of observations from driest to wettest, April 2020 ranked 4th. The driest is April 2019 with the national average rainfall of 7.0 mm.

The amount of precipitation and the climatic norm by months of 2020 on the territory of Belarus

The maximum wind speed for the year was recorded on March 14 in Grodno and on June 10 at the hydro station Ulla and amounted to 27 m/s. During the year, the following types of hazardous phenomena were observed: adhesion of wet snow, strong wind, very heavy rain and downpour, large hail, heavy ice.

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